Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by increase levels of glucose in the blood, termed as (hyperglycemia) which means “hyper” (elevated) “glyco” or “glucose” (sugar) and “emia” (blood) elevated sugar in the blood. It results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Normally a certain amount of sugar circulates in the blood, around 70-120 mg/dl. The major sources of this glucose are absorption of ingested food in the gastrointestinal tract and formation glucose by the liver from the food substances termed as (gluconeogenesis) “gluco” (sugar) “neo” (new) and “genesis” (formation).
Insulin a hormone produced by the pancreas, controls the level of glucose in the blood by regulating the production and storage of glucose. In the diabetic condition the cells may stop responding to insulin or the pancreas may stop producing insulin entirely. This leads to hyperglycemia , which may result in acute metabolic complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). Long term effects ofhyperglycemia contribute to macrovascular complications (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular diseases), chronic microvascular complications (kidney and eye disease) , and neuropathic complications (diseases of the nerves).